As elsewhere in Europe, the term was originally introduced by the Czech Social Democrats and subsequently carried over to Czech Communists as well when these split off from the Social Democrats. In Romanian the exact translation is camarad, a neologism introduced from French in the 19th century, which does not bear a political connotation, referring mainly to wartime allies and friends. It is frequently used ironically in that way. That use persisted until the fall of the Soviet Union. Other meanings of this word are:
Despite this, it has been adopted into the U. During the '70s the word was a common term of address within the left leaning Fretilin party, and after the Indonesian invasion, continued to be used by the Fretilin associated guerillas waging a war of resistance in the jungle. It is still in use but less than before. It is usually written in full, the abbreviation "Cde" being associated with southern African usage. This word is in widespread use among left-wing circles, including not just communists but also many socialists. However, after the s and the onset of China's market-oriented reforms, this term has been moving out of such daily usage. Though largely falling out of use since Fretilin politicians and veterans of the guerillas struggle continue to use the term to refer to each other. The word samideano, literally "same-thinker", usually refers to a fellow Esperantist. The word ndugu is still used in formerly socialist Tanzania as a way of showing political solidarity. Officials often address each other as Tongzhi, and thus the usage here is not limited to Communist Party members alone. In Romanian the exact translation is camarad, a neologism introduced from French in the 19th century, which does not bear a political connotation, referring mainly to wartime allies and friends. The word originally meant "friend". When joined with other words, such as klassekamerat, the word is gender neutral. It translates as friend or colleague. In German , the word Kamerad had long been used as an affectionate form of address among people linked by some strong common interest, such as a sport, a college, a profession notably as a soldier , or simply friendship. Unlike in Norwegian , the term is commonly used for both boys and girls in non-communist usage. In North Korea , the word tongmu replaced all prior social titles and earned a new meaning as "a fellow man fighting for the revolution". Although it can be associated with communist lingo, it may just as well be used to refer to a friend, a co-worker arbetskamrat or a classmate in school klasskamrat or skolkamrat. This is exemplified in its mocking use in stereotypical portrayals of the Soviet Union in Cold War films and books. The Italian word for comrade is compagno male or compagna female , meaning "companion". In Kurdish , the word Heval "friend" or "companion on a long journey" is widely used among Kurdish political parties and organizations. In German , the word is Kamerad for a male, or Kameradin for a female. The Danish word is kammerat plural kammerater which literally translates as " mate ," or " buddy ". In non-political sense, it means "companion". As elsewhere in Europe, the term was originally introduced by the Czech Social Democrats and subsequently carried over to Czech Communists as well when these split off from the Social Democrats. The word fell out of use after the fall of the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party. It remains in use as a respectful term of public address among middle-aged Chinese and members of the Communist Party of China.
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